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March 28, 2009

青山ユニマット美術館(3月閉館)のシャガール

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火曜日の午後に外苑前の青山ユニマット美術館に行った。残念ながら3月で閉館になるそう。ここに行くのは約2年前の2月11日、レーシック手術2日後の検診の後に始めて行って以来。その時は、解説文が二重に見えたり、ライトで照らされた絵が滲んだりしてやや見づらかったが、今回は落ち着いて見ることができた。

ユニマット美術館はビルの中の小さな美術館で、まずエレベータで4階に上がり、3階、2階と降りていく。4階はシャガールだけの大部屋で、壁に14枚の絵が並んでいる。大ぶりで素晴らしい絵が多い。最初の絵は画学生時代に妹を描いた絵。色は茶色の濃淡だけで、暖かい雰囲気はあるが、泥臭い。パリに出た後は急に色彩豊かになり、赤、青、緑の原色が鮮やかな、おなじみのシャガールの絵になる。

最初に目を引くのはこの美術館の看板絵でもある「ブルー・コンサート」。真ん中でマリア様のような清楚な白い顔の女性が緑色のヴァイオリンを弾き、青い羊が笛を吹き、優しそうな瞳の鶏がいる。背景はラピスラズリのような深みのある青と、血のように鮮やかな赤。この絵が描かれたのは第2次世界大戦当時、ユダヤ人虐殺を逃れてアメリカに亡命し、愛妻ベラを伝染病で亡くして9ヶ月後、ようやく立ち直りかけた頃だという。シャガールはベラを溺愛していたそうだが、上映していたビデオで見ると素晴らしく魅力的な美人で、一目で納得してしまった。

他に、緑色が基調の絵で、大きな雄鶏がヴァイオリンを持つ男性に羽を上げて挨拶している絵も気に入った。童話の世界のような愉快な表情なのだが、色のバランスが絶妙で美しい。羽に十字架模様がいくつも浮き出しているのはどこかの国旗のようにも見える。晩年になると(97歳まで生きたそう。画家は長生きの人が多い)、白が多くなり、赤や青の点描で描かれた花束等、柔らかで天国のような絵になっていく。

大部屋の真ん中のソファに座ると、ほとんどの絵をぐるりと見渡すことができる。大分前のことだが、雑誌に「飾るだけ幸せになる絵」というような、やや宗教がかった絵の広告が頻繁に載っていたことがあったが、シャガールの絵もまさに癒し絵。見ているだけで幸せになる気がする。しばらくソファに座って見ていたが見飽きない。一つ一つの絵に物語があり、劇を見ているような気分になる。背景に牛が飛んでいたり、魚が花束を捧げていたり、故郷のロシアの村が描かれていたり、奇想天外なのだが不自然ではない。全てがそこに描かれるのが必然、という気がするのは天才だからだろうか。素晴らしいということはわかるのだが、なぜそうなのか、言葉では説明しづらい。シャガールの心の中がそのまま描かれている感じがする。

シャガールは若い時に故郷ロシアを去り、生涯のほとんどをフランスで過ごすことになったが、彼自身、「フランスに来なければシャガールは無かった」と言っていたそうだ。ふと思ったのだが、人間関係が濃密で土の匂いがするロシアと、軽やかな個人主義のフランスという、対照的なものの出会いがこれらの素晴らしい絵を生んだのではなかろうか。ロシアの土臭さと魂、フランスの洗練が絶妙に溶け合っているような気がする。話が逸れるが、私がロシアに惹かれたのは、自分とは違う価値観や考え方、理解できないものがあったからかもしれない。懐が大きな国なので、違いというものもあっさり飲み込んでしまう国なのだが。個人主義でわがままな私が何故ロシアに惹かれるのだろうかと思っていたが、シャガールの絵を見ていて、全て理解できなくてもいいのではないか、違ったものの出会いも面白いのではないか、と思った。

美術館の3階に降りると、シャガールの小品が並んでいる。その他の画家では、エコール・ド・パリや、フランスの画家の絵が多い。クールベのスイスの湖に迫り出したシヨン城を描いた絵が美しい。静けさが漂っていて、厳しい精神性が感じられる。マルケの港を描いた絵も気に入った。海や船を描くのが好きだったそうだが、青緑色の海の色が、何とも言えず引き込まれる感じだった。
ユトリロ、ボナール、キスリング、モディリアニ、ヴラマンク、藤田嗣治、ローランサン等も、それぞれ枚数は少ないが、良い絵が多くて楽しめた。

これらの絵はユニマットの別の美術館(伊豆にカシニョールの美術館と香りの美術館、長崎にガラスの美術館があるそう)に移されるのか、ばらばらに売られてしまうのか。。都心でこれだけまとまったシャガールやパリ派等のコレクションが気軽に見られなくなるのは残念だ。

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